Kazakhstan


About

Kazakhstan is a transcontinental country that is officially named as the Republic of Kazakhstan which is located in Central Asia with the most western parts of it being placed in Eastern Europe. It's the world's biggest landlocked country, and also the 9th-largest country within the whole world, with an area of 2,724,900 sq. kilometres (1,052,100 sq. Mi). Economically, it is the most dominant country of Central Asia, producing 60% of the region's GDP, generally through its oil and gas industry. It has vast natural resources.

Kazakhstan is officially a unitary, democratic, secular, constitutional republic with numerous cultural heritages. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, and additionally adjoins a huge a part of the Caspian Sea. It does no longer border Mongolia, although they may be the simplest 37 kilometers apart. The terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, steppe, taiga, rock canyons, hills, deltas, snow-capped mountains, and deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18.3 million people as of 2018. Its populace density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometer (15 people in step with square mi). Since 1997 and independence, the capital is nur-sultan, formerly referred to as Astana. It changed into moved from Almaty, the country's largest city.

The Kazakh language is the state language, and Russian has an equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes. Kazakhstan is a member of the CIS, WTO, the shanghai cooperation organization (SCO), the united nations (UN), The Eurasian financial union, OIC, CSTO, OSCE, and TURKSOY.


Geography and Climate

Kazakhstan is one of two landlocked nations in the whole world that has territory in two continents (the other is Azerbaijan). With an area of 2,700,000 square kilometers (1,000,000 square mi) – equal in length to western Europe – Kazakhstan is the ninth-largest country and the biggest landlocked country in the whole world. Even as it became part of the soviet-union, Kazakhstan lost some of its territories to china's Xinjiang autonomous area and some to Uzbekistan's karakalpakstan autonomous republic.
It shares borders of 6,846 kilometers with Russia, 2,203 kilometers with Uzbekistan, 1,533 kilometers with China, 1,051 kilometers with Kyrgyzstan, and 379 kilometers with Turkmenistan. Important cities include nur-sultan, Almaty, Karaganda, Shymkent, Atyrau, and Oskemen. It lies among latitudes 40° and 56° N, and longitudes 46° and 88° E. While located primarily in Asia, a small portion of Kazakhstan are also located west of the Urals in Eastern Europe.
Kazakhstan's terrain extends west to east from the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains and north to south from the plains of western Siberia to the oases and deserts of Central Asia. The Kazakh steppe (undeniable), with an area of around 804,500 square kilometers (310,600 square mi.), occupies 1/3 of the country and is the world's largest dry steppe place. The steppe is characterized with the aid of huge areas of grasslands and sandy regions. Major seas, lakes, and rivers consist of the Aral Sea, Lake Balkhash and Lake Zaysan, the Charyn River and gorge and the Ili, Irtysh, Ishim, Ural, and the Syr Darya rivers.


Climate

Kazakhstan has extreme continental weather, with warm summers and cold winters. Indeed, Nursultan is the second one coldest capital city within the world after Ulaanbaatar. Precipitation varies among arid and semi-arid situations, the winters being mainly dry.


Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for large cities in Kazakhstan

Location

July (°C)

July (°F)

January (°C)

January (°F)

Almaty

30/18

86/64

0/−8

33/17

Shymkent

32/17

91/66

4/−4

39/23

Karaganda

27/14

80/57

−8/−17

16/1

Nur-Sultan

27/15

80/59

−10/−18

14/−1

Pavlodar

28/15

82/59

−11/−20

12/−5

Aktobe

30/15

86/61

−8/−16

17/2


Demographics

The US Census Bureau International Database lists the population of Kazakhstan as 18.9 million (may 2019), while the UN (United Nation) assets including the 2019 revision of the World Population possibilities give an estimate of 18,319,618. Official estimates put the population of Kazakhstan at 18.459 million as of April 2019.


Ethnic Group

As of 2018, ethnic Kazakhs are 67.5% of the population and ethnic Russians in Kazakhstan are 19.8%. Different groups include Tatars (1.3%), Ukrainians (2.1%), Uzbeks (2.8%), Belarusians, Uyghurs (1.4%), Azerbaijanis, dungeons, Kalmyks, Chuvashes, poles, and Lithuanians. Some minorities including Ukrainians, Koreans, Volga Germans (1.1%), Chechens, Meskhetian Turks, and Russian political opponents of the regime, have been deported to Kazakhstan within the 1930s and 1940s via Stalin. Some of the largest soviet labor camps (gulag) existed in the country.

The population of Kazakhstan according to ethnic group (2009)

Ethnic
group

census 20095

Number

%

Kazakhs

10,096,763

63.1

Russians

3,793,764

23.7

Uzbeks

456,997

2.8

Ukrainians

333,031

2.1

Germans

178,409

1.1


Languages

Kazakhstan is a bilingual country. Kazakh, (a part of the Kipchak family of Turkic languages) is spoken natively by 64.4% of the population, has the status of "nation" language, while Russian, that is spoken by most of Kazakhstanis, is declared an official language, and is used routinely in commercial enterprise, government authorities, and inter-ethnic communication, despite the fact that Kazakh is slowly replacing it.
Other minority languages spoken in Kazakhstan consist of Uzbek, Ukrainian, Uyghur, Kyrgyz, and Tatar. English, in addition to Turkish, has gained popularity among the youth of the country since the collapse of the soviet union. Education in Kazakhstan is carried out in Kazakh, Russian, English.

Transport:

Railways:

57% of the country travel with the help of railways as it provides 68% of all cargo and passenger traffic. There are around 15,333 km carrier services which excludes industrial lines. All railways lines are built-in 1520 mm gauge, from which 4000 km is electrified. National Railway Company is Kazakhstan Temir Zholy (KTZ) which cooperates with French loco manufacturer Alstom for developing railway infrastructure. Alstom opened their first locomotive repairing center in Kazakhstan which is only center available in Central Asia and Caucasus. A rail system or rail route in Kazakhstan was designed in Soviet era which ignores inter-Soviet borders and based on the needs of the Soviet era. It caused anomalies like the route from Oral to Aktobe passing through Russian territory which means the route doesn’t suit the current needs of the Kazakhstan. The modern railway station named Astana NurlyZhol railway station was opened in Nur-Sultan on 31 May 2017 which means the opening is coincides with the start of Expo 2017 International Exhibition. As per KTZ 120,000 m2 station is expected to be used by 54 trains in a day and having a capacity to handle almost 35,000 passengers in a day. 

Highways:

Kazakhstan is having of almost 96000 km road network which needs modernization and repair. As per the latest report of CIA Factsheet 2008, Kazakhstan is having 93,612 km road network in which 84,100 are paved and rest are unpaved. As per 2017 statistics, there were 3,845,301 registered cars and 4,425,770 units of auto transport. Five International Routes are:

  • M-36 Highway: Almaty – Nur-Sultan – Kostanay (continues to Chelyabinsk)

  • Almaty – Petropavl to Omsk 

  • M-38 Highway: Almaty - Semey - Pavlodar (continues to Omsk)

  • M-39 Highway: Almaty - Shymkent (continues to Tashkent)

  • M-32 Highway: Shymkent - Aktobe - Oral (continues to Samara)


Western Europe-Western China Highways was constructed in 2013 which is about 8,445 km in total length from which 2,787 km are in Kazakhstan and the lifespan of highway will be around 25 years with a maximum speed limit of 120 km/hr. The government is also working on a number of bridges over rivers, road maintenance facilities, bus stop areas, avtopavilony, cattle trails, and electronic signage simultaneously with the construction of highways, roads will also be repaired and built-in areas along its route. 


Motorways:

Motorways in Kazakhstan are underdeveloped due to low-population density which not needs wider roads on long distances. There is around 490 km of motorways. In Kazakhstan, the following are the only existing multi-lane, double carriage roads:

  • A1 - Runs from Nur-Sultan to Shchuchinsk which further continues as the A1 two-lane highway to Kokshetau. Motorway length is upto 250 km (160 mi).

  • A2 - Runs from Almaty to a point past Uzynagash which further continues as the A2 two-lane highway to Shymkent. Motorway length is upto 58 km (36 mi).

  • A2 - Other four-lane portion runs from Shymkent to ZhibekZholy, on the border with Uzbekistan. The length is upto 100 km (62 mi).

  • A3 - Runs from Almaty to Kapshagay which further continues as the A3 two-lane highway to Oskemen. Motorway length is upto 82 km (51 mi).

Airports

Kazakhstan is having 97 airports in total but it is quoted in 2001 that Kazakhstan is having 449 airports in total. Here is the list of 97 airports which is having 64 paved and 33 unpaved runways:

PAVED

UNPAVED

over 3,047 metres (9,997 ft): 10

over 3,047 metres (9,997 ft): 5

2,438–3,047 metres (7,999–9,997 ft): 25

2,438–3,047 metres (7,999–9,997 ft): 7

1,524–2,437 metres (5,000–7,995 ft): 16

1,524–2,437 metres (5,000–7,995 ft): 3

914–1,523 metres (2,999–4,997 ft): 5

914–1,523 metres (2,999–4,997 ft): 5

under 914 metres (2,999 ft): 8 (2012)

under 914 metres (2,999 ft): 13 (2012)


11 airports are under open sky regimes which allows more foreign carriers and flights. It includes the airports of Nur-Sultan, Almaty, Shymkent, Aktau, Karaganda, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Pavlodar, Kokshetau, Taraz, Petropavlovsk, and Semey. There are 3 Heliports in Kazakhstan. 

Airlines:

In 2009, all Kazakh carries are blacklisted and banned as per the European Commission except Air Astana but from that time Kazakhstan takes specific measures to modernize and revamp their air safety oversight. Therefore, in 2016, all Kazakh airlines being removed from blacklist as per the European Aviation Safety Agency removed by citing “sufficient evidence of compliance” with international standards by Kazakh Airlines and its Civil Aviation Committee. 

Education:

In Kazakhstan education is mandatory and universal through to the secondary level and because of this adult literacy rate is 99.5%, both men and women contribute the same in this average of statistics. In Kazakhstan education is divided in three parts, first is primary from 1- to 4, second is basic general education from 5 to 9 and third is senior-level education from 10-11 or 12 which is optional in between continued general education and vocational education. Vocational education usually completed in 3 or 4 years. Before going to primary education students go to pre-school education of 1 year and these levels can be done by one institution or by different ones. Several secondary schools, specialized schools, magnet schools, gymnasiums, lyceums and linguistic and technical gymnasiums have been founded recently but secondary professional education is given in special professional or technical schools, lyceums or colleges and vocational schools. 
Pre-school education also known as Kindergarten which starts at the age of 5 and as per the data of 2004 there were 100 Kindergartens in Kazakhstan in which 83 are public, 4 are under the ministry of education and 13 are private. As per the statistics around 135,856 children are enrolled for pre-school education and they are expected to teach Kazakh and Russian and emphasize on one language over other. Primary education starts with the age of 6 or 7, vary rarely 8 and runs for 4 years. Classes run in two sessions or batches, one from 8 to 1 pm and other is from 2 to 7 pm. So, students attend their classes in the morning or in the afternoon. All schools that are having primary education are state-owned and both primary and secondary educations are constitutionally protected rights. The curriculums for both the educations are established by the Ministry of Education with some little choices given to the individual schools. Textbooks must be brought by students themselves as all textbooks are published by independent retailers. Primary education is free in Kazakhstan, parents only have to pay for extra-curricular activities like sports, music etc. 

Lower secondary school continues with basic general education from grade 5 to 9. Typically, students are at the age of 14-15 years at 8th standard and this education corresponds to junior high school or middle school education in USA. In general education curriculum subjects are literature, student's first language, Russian or Kazakh language (depending on the language of the school), history, physics, mathematics, biology, chemistry, foreign language, etc. After lower secondary school education, students come in higher secondary school where they have to opt in between three tracks which they want to pursue for higher education. First track is general secondary school which covers 10 -11 standards and provides general education and other two tracks are for vocational education. 
Initial vocational education is provided by training schools and lycees, and other secondary vocational education is provided by colleges and trade schools. To train students in a skilled profession, initial training schools are designed in which they trained for 2 or 3 years but for some professional training 4-year program is required. Students who graduate can go to colleges and universities for advanced vocational training. The cost of education is pays by the state. Lycees provide basic vocational education for skilled professionals and include general academic education of 3 years and here also the cost of education is onto the state. Colleges give advanced vocational education and academic general education and if colleges are having license then they also provide intial vocational education. Programs last for 3 or 4 years (10-12th standard or 13th). Students who have completed their general secondary education and initial vocational training in the same field, accelerated programs exist. Graduates can go to universities for higher education or start working. As per Budget Law of 1999, all colleges are state-owned and self-financed. All compulsory education is given free of charge.


There are four levels of tertiary education in Kazakhstan

Bachelor's degree — typically a four-year degree




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